By the end of the topic, pupils should be able to;
  1. List the major characters in the text.
  2. Give a brief account of the story
  3. Relate story to personal experiences.


  • Julius Caesar is a story about the betrayal of Caesar.
  • It is a story of how Caesar's friends plotted and succeeded in killing him.
  •  Cassius being the mastermind of manipulating everyone into believing that Caesar would not become a good leader, he manages to sway Brutus one of Caesar's best friends against him.
  •  Caesar saw Brutus and Cassius conversing and became suspicious.
  •  He ignored the prophesy he received from the soothsayer about the 15th of March, he also ignored his wife's dreams about his death.
  • The play also continues to describe how Caesar finally avenges his death from the grave and how Anthony his best friend also fought for Caesar's honour.

2.0 PLOT

By the end of the topic pupils should be able to;
  1. Define a plot
  2. Describe the development of the plot in a text
  3. Analyse a plot giving their own inferences

2.1 Introduction

  • Plot  is the author's arrangement of events within the play according to their significance.
  • The introduction is how the play begins.
  • In the introduction we find; the mood of the characters and the setting of the text.
  • We are also introduced to the characters.

2.2 Conflict

  • These are the problems in the text.
  • It can be either an argument or tension between characters or within a character.

2.3 Rise in Action

  • It is the conflict which causes the rise in action
  • These events create tension and excitement in the plot.
  • This is where the story happens, where wheels start to turn and the story is set in motion.

2.4 Climax

  • This is the high point of the story
  • It is the main event,when the odds turn against the villain, for example in Julius Caesar this is when things turn around for Brutus.

2.5 Fall in action

  • This is the winding down after the main event.
  • This is where we see the events which lead to the end of the story, where the villain suffers the consequences of their actions.
  • This is also where characters regret some of their decisions like Brutus realised that his decision to allow Mark Antony to speak on Caesar's funeral was wrong.

2.6 Conclusion

  • This being the end of the story all loose ends are tied and conflicts are resolved and hope is renewed.
  • The story comes to a happy or sad ending.

2.7 Introduction

  • The play begins while the people of Rome were awaiting Caesars arrival from battle.
  •  We are introduced to Flavius and Murellus who are political rivals of Caesar and two citizens of Rome who are parading the streets in Caesar's honor.
  • The mood is set with celebrations of Caesar's triumph over Pompey.
  • Murellus and Flavius are chasing citizens off the streets accusing them of betraying Pompey.
  • Pg 11 Act 1 Scene1 line 35 'O you hard hearts, you cruel man of Rome knew you not Pompey?"

2.8 Conflict

  • The conflict starts when Murellus and Flavius accuse people of being unfaithful, fiddle, changeable and unreliable because they feel that the people have let down Pompey.
  • As a sign of showing that they detest the celebration going on they go about stripping the statues.
  • Page 11 Act 1 scene 1 line 64 "This way will l disrobe the images if you do find them decked with ceremonies."
  • They urge each other to go and chase people off the streets in order to demoralize Caesar.
  • Page 11 Act 1 Scene 1 line 70 "These growing feathers plucked from Caesar's wings will make him fly an ordinary pitch".

2.9 Rise in Action

  • This is where the actual play starts to unwind.
  • We are introduced to the prophesy of the danger that threatened Caesar's life in the future from the soothsayer.
  • Page 13 Act 1 Scene 2 line 18 "Beware the ldes of March."
  • Caesar brushes aside the prophecy.
  • Here we meet Antony, Caesar's loyal friend, who respects and loves Caesar and obeys Caesar's word.
  • We are also introduced to Cassius coaxing Brutus to doubt Caesar's capability to rule.
  • These two do not partake in the celebration instead they secretly discuss Caesar’s weakness and cowardice.
  • Brutus who is Caesar's best friend allows Cassius to manipulate his thoughts towards Caesar and his right to the crown.
  • The two are most displeased when they hear that Caesar had been offered the crown and people applauded showing that they favoured him to be their king.
  • Caesars enemies realised that he had the support of most of the citizens who still applauded him even after he had an epilepsy attack right in front of a crowd.
  • This sickness is viewed as a sign of physical weakness by his enemies and they use this disease as an excuse to deny him the throne.
  • It is from this point that Cassius rallies Brutus to find other disgruntled conspirators to join them in their quest to assassinate Caesar.
  • Cassius persuades Brutus to lead the conspirators.
  • He further manipulates Brutus by writing fake letters with contents which favour, exalt and incites Brutus into believing that it is not Cassius alone who wishes Caesar to be dethroned.
  • Page 27 Act 1 scene 2 "I will this night in several hands, in at his windows throw, As if they came from several citizens, writings, all tending to the great opinion that Rome holds of his name........"
  • Brutus, Cassius, Casca, Lucius, Metellus and other conspirators meet at Brutus’s house, they kept their faces covered out of shame of what they wanted to do.
  • They agree to assassinate Caesar on the 15th of March in the Senate chambers by their concealed daggers.
  • Portia ,Brutus' wife is worried about the secret meeting that took place at her house fearing for his life, she questions him.
  • She is however not the only wife fearing for her husband's being.
  • Calpurnia, Caesar's wife  is terrified by horrible dreams of disaster befalling her husband.
  • She begs Caesar to forgo the meeting with the council but he shrugs off her warnings and he leaves his life to fate.
  • That night strange things happened .
  •  Brutus and his group of conspirators made sure to fetch Caesar from his house to make sure he does not miss the day's journey.
  • Caesar unaware of their evil machinations innocently goes with them. 
Fig 1.2 The Murder of Caesar 

  • Though Caesar was stubborn and ignorant of the danger that was awaiting him in the council chambers the gods kept trying to warn him.
  • At the gate he was met by another warning in the form of a petition from Artemidorus
  • Page 69 Act 2 Scene 3 line 12 "If thou read this,O Caesar, thou mayst live if not, the fates with traitors do contrive."
  • The conspirators move into action they surround Caesar and alienate him from Antony's protection.
  • The conspirators make a request which they know Caesar will refuse so that they could justify killing him.
  • And when Caesar refuses this request they stab him in front of the Senate and spectators.
  • Anthony realizing that the death of Caesar was an assassination, is not quick to show his emotions and his thoughts about the act.
  • Fearing for his life he shakes hands with the conspirators and promises to join their cause.
  • Page 83 Act 3 Scene 1 line 133 "Mark Antony shall not love Caesar dead,so well as Brutus living, but will follow the fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus."  

2.10 Climax

  • The climax of the story is marked by Antony's speech at Caesar's funeral, he manages to turn the crowd against Caesar's conspirators.
  • Brutus granted Antony permission to speak at Caesar's funeral against Cassius’s advice.
  • Brutus gives his speech first, assured that his words would convince the citizens of the necessity of Caesar's death.
  • He forgets that words are feeble and easily changeable.
  • Antony manages to sway the citizens from agreeing with Brutus that Caesar's death was a just act.
  • He shares with the people the love that Caesar had for them to the point that he had included them in his will and he had left each person an inheritance.
  • His speech caused Rome to fall into chaos and everyone cried for Brutus and the conspirators' blood and from here their world is turned upside down.
  • Brutus and the conspirators flee Rome and hide in the hills.

2.11 Fall in Action

  • Brutus and Cassius are now in exile.
  • They quarrel over finances Brutus accuses Cassius of taking bribes and being a thief.
  • He accuses Cassius of being stingy and refusing to give him money.
  • He said he asked for gold and Cassius refused.
  • Their friendship is put to test and Cassius accuses Brutus of loving Caesar more than he loved him.
  • They challenge each other's strength and intellect.
  • Eventually they resolve their differences. 
  • They learn about Portia's death and about the death of their allies at the hands of Antony and Octavius.
  • They decide to come out of hiding and go to war with Antony and Octavius.
  • They disagree on the tactic of attack, Cassius wishes to hold front and let the enemy come to them, but Brutus wishes to go bring the war to Antony.
  • Brutus once again goes against Cassius advice which he will die regretting.
  • The ghost of Caesar visits Brutus and promises to meet him in the battle ahead but Brutus is not frightened by the ghost.
  • Brutus and Cassius share their last words and farewell, they discuss the worst that could happen if they should lose the battle.
  • They contemplate committing suicide to avoid the embarrassment of being dragged in chains back to Rome.

2.12 Conclusion

  • The Generals split and each leads his troops into battle.
  • For Cassius this day is his birthday and he fears it shall be his last day as well.
  • He is the first to be defeated by Antony and he flees to the hills while his camp/tent was being set on fire and some of his troops flee.
  • Cassius believes that all hope is lost, using the sword which he had used to kill Caesar he commands his slave to kill him.
  • Before he dies Cassius give honour to Caesar.
  • Brutus finds himself fighting a hopeless battle and unable to face the prospect of humiliation and shame as a captive he too takes his own life.
  • Before he dies he too gives praises to Caesar.
  • The play ends with Antony giving speech over Brutus dead body calling him the noblest Roman of them all.

2.13  Plot analysis

  • The story is about Julius Caesar's betrayal and the avenging of his death.
  • It is also about loyalty,trust and honour.
  • Shakespeare introduces the character of Caesar as a powerful man who was loved by most, for his victories against Pompey.
  • Shakespeare in his play uses superstition from the soothsayer to create suspense in the readers mind probing the reader to read further so as to discover what will happen on the 15th of March.
  • Shakespeare gives us a glimpse into Caesar's life before he is murdered maybe to gunner sympathy from the reader and make them take Caesars side.
  • He creates an intense,scary atmosphere as a prelude to Caesar's death.
  • The scary intonations serve to show that a gruesome act on a great man was about to happen.
  • He uses the ominous portents to show that the power and rank that Caesar held was an ordination from the gods.
  • Page 33 Act 1 Scene 3 line 7 "Most like this dreadful night that thunders lightens opens graves and roars as doth the lion in the capital......."
  • Shakespeare also shows ultimate betrayal by making Brutus's stab the fatal wound that leads to Caesars death.
  • Caesar comments on the stab Page 79 Act 3 Scene 1 “Ettu, Brute?-Then fall Caesar!”
  • Through the six stages the story line is developed and everything is centered on Caesars life,from the introduction to the conflict to the rise in action, to the climax, the mourning of his death, the fall in action for the conspirators and the conclusion when Caesar is avenged.
  • The motifs and portents techniques used by the writer serve as a warning to the conspirators to remind them of the consequences of what would happen to them if they proceeded with their plot.
  • As the plot thickens Shakespeare uses blood as a way of marking the conspirators for their upcoming revenge.
  • Antony shakes the conspirators’ bloody hands in pretence that he was with them but in his mind he plots Caesar's revenge.
  • As we reach the climax Antony is given the podium to make his speech, Shakespeare uses this to show free will versus fate.
  • Brutus failed to see beyond Antony's facade.He had also refused to kill Antony.
  • "Our course will seem too bloody" Act 2 Scene 1 line 162
  • By not killing Antony the conspirators' seal their fate.
  •  Shakespeare shows that fate was working against them, whether Caesar was alive or not they were not destined to be kings.
  • At the end Brutus and Cassius die.


By the end of the topic pupils should be able to;
  1. Define characterization
  2. Describe character using adjectives
  3. Assess character development
  4. Analyse characters in relation to the development of the plot.

3.1 Definition

3.2 Characterisation

3.2.1 Brutus

  • He loves Rome and believes that all he does is for the Romans.
  • He is willing to do anything to protect the Romans.
  • O Rome, I make thee promise, if the redress will follow, thou recievest thy full petition at the hand of Brutus. (Act 2 Scene 1)
  • He is easily manipulated and swayed by Cassius.
  • Cassius sings praises of his honour and before long he is convinced that Caesar must die.
  • ‘I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, as well as I know your outward favour…’ (Act 1 Scene 2 page 17).
  • He rebukes Cassius for taking bribes from his officers but at the same time he wants money from Cassius.
  • He is angry that Cassius refused to give him the money that he wanted.
  • ‘…I did send to you for gold to pay my legions, which you denied me…’( Act 4 Scene 3)

3.2.2 Julius Caesar

  • His confidence borders on arrogance.
  • Caesar should be a beast without a heart if he should stay at home today for fear. No Caesar shall not. Danger knows full well that Caesar is more dangerous than he: (Act 2 Scene 2).
  • He leaves a large portion of his wealth to the Romans.
  • Here is the will, and under Caesar’s seal: to every Roman citizen he gives, to every several man, seventy-five drachmaes. (Act 3 Scene 2).
  • He is a natural leader and most of the people love and adore him.
  • They make a holiday to see him and celebrate his victories
  • He fails to see the plot that is going on under his nose and even after he is warned he ignores the warnings.

3.2.3 Anthony

  • He says to Caesar ‘I shall remember: when Caesar says, ‘Do this’ , it is performed.’ (Act 1 Scene 2).
  • This shows that he is ready to do anything for Caesar.
  • When the conspirators kill Caesar he avenges his death.
  • He makes the conspirators believe that he is in agreement with their actions and even shakes their bloody hands.
  • He later incites the Romans against them by reading Caesar’s will.
  • He does not act on impulse after he discovers that the conspirators have murdered Caesar but takes his time to think things through and come up with a plan to incite the Romans against them.
  • He wants to exclude Lepidus from the triumvirate.
  • he says about Lepidius; this is a slight unmeritable man, meet to be sent on errand; is it fit, the threefold world divided, he should stand one of the three to share it. (Act 4, Scene 1)

3.2.4 Cassius

  • He plans and carries out a complex plot to oust and kill Caesar.
  • He is able to convince Brutus to betray Caesar.
  • He even plants false letters to convince Brutus.
  • He uses words to manipulate Brutus, he makes him feel like he is great.
  • He says to Brutus; ‘Brutus and Caesar: what should be in that ‘Caesar’? Why should his name be sounded more than yours? Write them together, yours is as fair a name… (Act 1 Scene 2).
  • He takes bribes from his officers in order to promote them.
  • Brutus confronts him saying ‘ let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself  are much condemned to have an itching palm, to sell and mart your offices for gold to undeservers.’ (Act 4 Scene 3).
  • He envies Julius Caesar to the extent that he carries out a deadly plan against him.
  • His reasons are pure jealousy.
  • He has this to say about Caesar; ‘I was born free as Caesar, so were you;… and this man is now become a god, and Cassius is a wretched creature and must bend his body if Caesar carelessly but nod at him…’ (Act 1 Scene 2).
  • This shows that his hostility was based not on the fact Caesar was failing to do his duties but instead was based purely on the fact that he was failing to accept that Caesar had become greater than him.

3.3 Character development

  • Most of the characters in the play are flat characters they maintain a straight pattern, they do not change.
  • Anthony is loyal to Caesar and all he does is to prove his loyalty and that includes pretending to pledge allegiance to Brutus and the other conspirators.
  • However when it is time for him to take charge as part of the triumvirate he seeks to exclude Lepidus claiming that he is not fit.
  • This is an ambitious part of him that had not been shown about him from the beginning of the play.
  • Brutus is a friend to Caesar and has been for a long time but it does not take much to convince him to change sides and become one of Caesar’s murderers.
  • Caesar does not appear much in the text but when he does he is constant.
  • Everything that he does is expected of him.
  • Cassius is manipulative by nature and all he does is for his selfish needs.
  • He is the one who is jealous of Caesar but he incites a number of people against Caesar so that they will do his dirty works.
  • This trait is seen throughout the play even when he starts demanding bribes from his army in exchange for promotion it does not come as a surprise.

3.4 Character Analysis

  • Since the play is based on true events, it required a great skill to give the characters traits that are similar to the real ones.
  • Brutus’ gullibility works well to make the readers sympathize and understand why he betrayed Caesar.
  • It is Brutus’ failure to analyse and investigate that causes him to fall into the manipulations by Cassius and as such cause the terrible death of Caesar.
  • By including Brutus in the conspiracy the author adds a dramatic twist into the play, because the conspirators could have easily murdered Caesar without Brutus.
  • Shakespeare also gives Cassius a very smooth tongue to hide his deceptive and cunning nature.
  • This is effective in that it makes it difficult for Brutus to be rational instead his ego is boosted and his imagination is fired up, some things that he had not thought about before seems all of a sudden reachable.
  • It is the same technique that Anthony employs when addressing the Romans, he first applauds what the conspirators have done and later during the address he introduces the will and all this required tactic.
  • The author shows that anyone can be manipulated if one knows their tender spots, like in the text Cassius knew that playing around with Brutus’ ego will yield results because he was a man who valued honour.
  • Just as such Anthony knew how poor the Romans were and the will that had provisions for them would definitely ignite their anger.
  • To some extent it can be said that it is Caesar’s arrogance that causes his death as he gets three warnings but does not take heed of any one of them.
  • He had a chance to change his fate but he tempted fate.
  • The author; by using three different warnings for Caesar does not only make the story line dramatic but places Caesar as ordained by the gods.
  • The characters in the play are created in such a way that they individually are able to draw in the readers and take them through their journeys. 


By the end of the topic pupils should be able to;
  1. Give an account of the author’s background.
  2. Relate the author’s background to the text.
  3. Give inferences on the aforementioned.

4.1 History of the author

  • William Shakespeare was believed to have been born on April 23 1564.
  • He was the third child of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden.
  • William married Anne Hathaway when he was 18.
  • By 1952 Shakespeare had launched his career as an actor and a playwright.
  • Most of his plays that include Richard II, HenryVI and Henry V are based on the consequences faced by crooked leaders.
  • Some other plays by William Shakespeare include; Much Ado About Nothing, Merchant of Venice, Hamlet, Macbeth and many others.
  • Julius Caesar was written in 1599.
  • It is alleged that he died on his birthday on the 23rd of April 1616.

4.2 History versus Text

  • Julius Caesar is based on actual events that happened in Rome.
  • Just like in the text Caesar defeated Pompeys’ army and marched into Rome in victory.
  • Mark Antony offered him a diadem and he refused claiming that Jupiter was the only King of the Romans.
  • He was given the tittle dictator perpetuus.
  • As also mentioned in the play,Caesar was warned of some imminent danger against his life yet he refused to have a bodyguard.
  • On March 15 Caesar was stabbed 23 times as he stood below the statue of Pompey.
  • Anthony used Caesars’ will to incite the Romans against the conspirators.
  • The conspirators were forced to flee Rome for their safety.
  • All the above facts are also found in the text.
  • However Cassius and Brutus did not commit suicide during the same battle.
  • Cassius committed suicide after he was defeated by Antony’s’ army.
  • Brutus also killed himself after his camp was captured by the triumvirate.
  • These events occurred at two different times.

4.3 Analysis

  • William Shakespeare based this text on actual events and the characters in it are real.
  • He uses the soothsayer character to bring out the issue of fate versus freewill.
  • The soothsayer warns Caesar about the 15th of March, he gets two more warnings from his wife and Artemidorus.
  • In the actual history, Caesar was warned about the impending danger yet he refused to have a bodyguard with him.
  • However Shakespeare uses exaggeration of three people trying to warn Caesar about his demise, this might be because he wanted to show that there are forces at work that overpower our freewill.
  • Shakespeare also describes the last knife to go into Caesar as from Brutus and the fact that after all the stabbing from the other conspirators; the one that was fatal was from Brutus.
  • This goes on to show how Shakespeare wanted to emphasize the pain brought about by Brutus’ betrayal.
  • Furthermore Shakespeare places the deaths of Cassius and Brutus on the same battle to capitalize on the issue of revenge.
  • The impact is best felt when the revenge by Caesar is done on the same battle and the appearance of Caesar’s ghost before the battle adds that drama and anticipation to the play, above all it gives credit to Caesar for the two suicides and defeat.


By the end of the topic pupils should be able to;
  1. List themes found in the text.
  2. Describe how the themes are brought out in the text.
  3. Relate the themes to experience.
  4. Give an analysis of the author’s intention.

5.1 List of themes

  • love and duty
  • betrayal
  • power
  • envy
  • ambition
  • honor
  • suicide
  • persuasion
  • corruption

5.2 Theme analysis

5.2.1 Love and duty
  • Caesar is torn between love and duty when his wife warns him of her dream.
  • He chooses duty which leads to his demise in the hands of his conspirators.
  • Brutus is also torn between love and duty when he is told by Cassius that Caesar is full of ambition.
  • He has so much love for Caesar but also believes that it is his duty to the Romans to maintain and keep a republican government.
  • He chooses his duty over his love for Caesar and that leads to a chain of events that led to his death.
5.2.2 Betrayal
  • ‘Et tu, Brute?’ (pg79- Act3; scene 1)
  • The ultimate betrayal by Brutus, a friend to Caesar who kills him in cold blood.
  • The statement by Caesar ‘Et tu, Brute?’ (pg79- Act3; scene 1)shows that this was unexpected therefore becoming the worst betrayal.
5.2.3 Power
  • Caesars’ power and authority leads to his downfall.
  • ‘…So in the world: ‘tis furnished well with men, And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive; Yet in the number I do know but one That is unassailable holds on his rank, Unshaked of motion, and that I am he…’(Act3; scene1 page79)
  • He is filled with power that he considers himself a god.
  • It is this power that blinds him and clouds his judgment; he fails to see conspiracy before his eyes.
5.2.4 Envy
  • Cassius is filled with so much envy that he takes it upon himself to devise a plot to eliminate Caesar.
  • ‘…And this man Is now become a god, and Cassius is A wretched creature and must bend his body if Caesar carelessly but nod on him…’(Act1 Scene 3 Page 17)
  • He resents the fact that Caesar has so much power than he does.
  • His envy leads to the ultimate betrayal, the demise of Caesar and later on to his own death.
5.2.5 Ambition
  • Cassius’ blind ambition turns him into an obsessed schemer.
  • He does all in his power to make sure he gains the power he yearns for including falsifying and planting letters in Brutus’ house in order to fulfill his ambition.
5.2.6 Honour
  • Honour is an important aspect of the Romans’ life.
  • Flavius and Murellus question Caesars’ honour in defeating their beloved Pompey.
  • This shows that honour in that era was defined by a lot of things.
  • They decide to ‘disrobe the images’ of Caesar as a way of stripping him of this new found honour.
  • This shows that with honour came so much power and loyalty from the general public.
  • It is on this value that Cassius bases his scheme to persuade Brutus to join his side.
  • He questions Brutus’ honour that the whole people have placed upon him.
  • He knows the importance of it to Brutus, and as such Cassius is able to sway him to his side.
5.2.7 Suicide
  • Suicide was viewed as an honourable way of escaping a shameful end.
  • Portia, Brutus’ wife commits suicide in order to escape the shame brought upon her by her husband, especially now that the triumvirate was growing so strong in power and her husband had gone for so long with nothing to show for it.
  • Impatient of my absence, And grief that young Octavius with Mark Antony Have made themselves so strong-…With this she fell distract And, her attendants absent, swallowed fire.( Act4; Scene3 page127)
  • The same escape route is also taken by Brutus and Cassius when they realize that defeat is imminent.
  • They knew that if they were defeated they were going to be led as humiliated captives through the streets of Rome.
  • Therefore they chose to commit suicide.
5.2.8 Persuasion
  • The two major events in the play are set off by persuasion.
  • The first major event is the death of Caesar.
  • Brutus is persuaded by Cassius to embark on this dangerous plot, which was very hard since Caesar was his friend.
  • This persuasion is done by using praise and deception to win over Brutus.
  • Another major event was when Brutus and Cassius ran away from Rome because people were hungry for their blood.
  • Antony did a sterling job persuading the Roman people to turn against the conspirators, although this was done in innuendoes.
  • Antony only had to tell them of Caesars’ will and that was enough to set the mob on fire.
  • This shows the power of persuasion in the play.
5.2.9 Corruption
  • Brutus is known for his moral standards and he now finds himself associated with a corrupt official; Cassius.
  • Cassius takes bribes from his soldiers so that he can promote them.
  • ‘…Cassius, you yourself Are much Condemned to have an itching palm, To sell and mart your offices for gold To undeservers.’( Act 4; Scene 3 page 119).
5.3 Themes versus experience
  • This play is based on actual events that took place in Rome.
  • Betrayal is also seen in how Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus conspire and murder Julius Caesar.
  • Deception also plays a major role in Caesars’ demise in that; he is lured under the pretense that they (the conspirators) wanted to submit a petition to him.
  • Just like in the play Antony used the will to incite the Roman people against the conspirators.
  • They were forced to flee for their safety.
  • It is important to note that suicide was viewed as an escape route.
  • Brutus and Cassius would not let the people of Rome see them being paraded as criminals, therefore they committed suicide.
  • This then shows that most of the play was drawn from real experience.
5.4 The authors’ intention
  • William Shakespeare may have intended to give the ordinary person an insight into the power dynamics that characterized the political era of that time.
  • To the ordinary layman everything was black and white, but with this play it becomes apparent that all events that took place were as a result of some plotting and planning behind the scenes.
  • For example the betrayal by Brutus was as a result of a lot of plotting and deception from Cassius.
  • Shakespeare might also have been trying to show that it is the people close to you that one should be wary of.
  • Caesar was shocked to see Brutus among the people who betrayed him.
  • On the other hand Shakespeare also emphasizes the hand of destiny in our lives.
  • Caesar has three chances to change the course of events, from the soothsayer, his wife and Artemidorous but he did nothing about them.
  • This shows that when something is predestined it is impossible to stop it from happening.